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Saints Feast Family
~Exploring Catholic Patron Saints of the Day & their Feasts (Catholic Cuisine)
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The Bible

Catholicism, Reformation & Religions of the World

 

Books of the Bible in Canonical Order

http://www.usccb.org/bible/books-of-the-bible/

The books that are highlighted in yellow are the books that were removed after The Reformation for non Catholics (Protestants).
This new Bible is called the King James Bible (KJV) vs. the Catholic Bible.

Old Testament

  1. Genesis

  2. Exodus

  3. Leviticus

  4. Numbers

  5. Deuteronomy

  6. Joshua

  7. Judges

  8. Ruth

  9. 1 Samuel

  10. 2 Samuel

  11. 1 Kings

  12. 2 Kings

  13. 1 Chronicles

  14. 2 Chronicles

  15. Ezra

  16. Nehemiah

  17. Tobit

  18. Judith

  19. Esther

  20. 1 Maccabees

  21. 2 Maccabees

  22. Job

  23. Psalms

  24. Proverbs

  25. Ecclesiastes

  26. Song of Songs

  27. Wisdom

  28. Sirach

  29. Isaiah

  30. Jeremiah

  31. Lamentations

  32. Baruch

  33. Ezekiel

  34. Daniel

  35. Hosea

  36. Joel

  37. Amos

  38. Obadiah

  39. Jonah

  40. Micah

  41. Nahum

  42. Habakkuk

  43. Zephaniah

  44. Haggai

  45. Zechariah

  46. Malachi

New Testament

  1. Matthew

  2. Mark

  3. Luke

  4. John

  5. Acts

  6. Romans

  7. 1 Corinthians

  8. 2 Corinthians

  9. Galatians

  10. Ephesians

  11. Philippians

  12. Colossians

  13. 1 Thessalonians

  14. 2 Thessalonians

  15. 1 Timothy

  16. 2 Timothy

  17. Titus

  18. Philemon

  19. Hebrews

  20. James

  21. 1 Peter

  22. 2 Peter

  23. 1 John

  24. 2 John

  25. 3 John

  26. Jude

  27. Revelation

.

 

Canonical vs. Gnostic

Christianity vs. Gnosticism
Orthodox vs. Mystical

Canonical: Being of the canon; laws governing the church

Gnosticism: "having knowledge." Gnostics were Jewish Christian just like Christians but Gnostics believed in secret knowledge. 

People are saved by acquiring secret knowledge (gnosis), which is imparted only to the initiated.

The  "Church of Gnosticism"  is spiritual growth within one's self. 

They don't want thing of the material world.

The recent discovery of part of the Gospel of Judas has sparked a renewed debate concerning the Gnostic Gospels. Many are confused when reading of the existence of a Gospel from Judas; is this an authentic Gospel written by the disciple of Jesus? What about other Gospels, such as the Gospel of Thomas? 

N.T. Wright, a respected authority in the New Testament, has distinguished four main differences between the biblical or canonical Gospels and the Gnostic Gospels. Wright listed and explained these four differences in his little book “Judas and the gospel of Jesus” (2006, pp.68-83):

  1. The biblical Gospels affirm Jesus as the continuation and climax of God’s redemptive history with Israel. The biblical Gospels recount how the long history of God’s work through Israel came to its climax with the person of Jesus. Contrarily, the Gnostic Gospels completely detached Jesus from Israel and the history of Israel with God. The Gnostic Gospels described the God of the Old Testament as evil and Judaism as totally lost. The Gnostics Gospels saw no connection between Jesus and the nation of Israel and the acts of God in the Old Testament.

  2. The biblical Gospels told the story of Jesus in connection with the life of the early followers of Jesus to show all Christians a plan to follow as they followed Jesus. In a very different way, the Gnostic Gospels put Jesus in the position of giving a secret knowledge (a “gnosis”) to some of his original disciples (the “Gnostic disciples”) to pass it along to others in a secret way. The belief in a secret message by the Gnostic Christians was implicitly a rejection of the “mainstream” Christian church and Christians and their open message to the world.

  3. The biblical or canonical Gospels, in presenting the story of Jesus, proclaimed that in Jesus God had manifested and launched his kingdom on Earth (as it was in heaven). In a contrary way, the Gnostic Gospels rejected this idea of the kingdom of God at work on Earth in Jesus. The Jesus of the Gnostic Gospels was not interested in this world; he was mostly interested in fleeing from his earthly body and returning to the spirit world.

  4. The Gospels of the Bible were written in the first century (around AD 70-90). On the other hand, the Gnostic Gospels were written in the second century AD: “The canonical gospels were being read and quoted as carrying authority in the early and middle second century, whereas we do not even hear of the non-canonical ones until the middle or end of that century” (Wright, 2006, p.77).

These four essential differences between the canonical or biblical Gospels and the Gnostic Gospels are a clear indication that the Gnostic Gospels are not authentically apostolic in their authorship, message and frame of time. The Gnostic Gospels are not reliable sources for the life and teachings of Jesus.

https://www.catholic.com/qa/whats-gnosticism?gclid=Cj0KCQiA7IDiBRCLARIsABIPohgEV5Z_uDSd4TnpCcOQ8DJn20nvl9eU7A07Lmy2vquvBTos4d2FgsQaAtGCEALw_wcB
https://blogs.gcu.edu/college-of-theology/four-differences-between-the-canonical-gospels-and-the-gnostic-gospels/

Catholic mean universal = universal church

Catholics believe that our Lord Jesus Christ founded the Catholic Church in the year 33. Jesus appointed the apostle Peter as the first vicar or pope. Matthew 16:18-19 are the scriptural references Catholics give to support this. "And I say unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock, I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto thee the keys of the Kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shalt be loosed in heaven." (KJV) 

Apostolic Succession

the uninterrupted transmission of spiritual authority from the Apostles through successive popes and bishops,

taught by the Roman Catholic Church but denied by most Protestants.

The Reformation
 

The Protestant Reformation, or the European Reformation was a schism (a split) in Western Christianity initiated

by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th-century Europe.

 


 

October 31, 1517

The Ninety-Five Theses on the Power of Indulgences, commonly known as The Ninety-Five Theses, was written by Martin Luther.

In short Martin Luther was a founding leader of  Lutheranism in Germany.

(Sola Fide: Faith alone & Eucharist Transubstantiation. Not in apostolic succession.)

Anglicanism or the Church of England was founded by King Henry VIII, King of England.

The term Anglican is English were as Episcopalian is American.

(Eucharist in Christ spirit / in faith: does not change into the body of Christ. Open Communion. Ordained Women. Not in apostolic succession.)

Martin's ideas were brought to Scotland via John Knox who was a founding leader of Presbyterianism.

Presbyterianism was influenced by the French John Calvin who was a founding leader of Calvinism

(Eucharist in Christ spirit / in faith: does not change into the body of Christ. Not in apostolic succession.)


More Reformist: Protestant, Evangelicals, Fundamentalist, Anabaptism, Mennonites, Amish, German Baptists, Baptist....
The name Anabaptist means "one who baptizes again". 

 and they believe in the literal interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount. (The Bible)

(Eucharist in Christ spirit / in faith: does not change into the body of Christ. Not in apostolic succession.)

Mainline Protestant aka the "Seven Sisters of American Protestantism"

(Eucharist in Christ spirit / in faith: does not change into the body of Christ. Not in apostolic succession.)

Methodist, Evangelical Lutheran, Presbyterian Church, Episcopal Church, American Baptist Churches, United Church of Christ,

& the Disciples of Christ, as well as the Quakers.

Martin Luther,  Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, & John Knox

 

 

British Royalty
England

King Henry VIII who was a devoted catholic but wanted to remarry so he could have a son. 
The Catholic church said you may NOT divorce your wife Catherine of Aragon.
In short King Henry started his own church, the Church of England.

He was now allowed to do whatever he wanted because he was the head of his church.

 Catherine of Aragon had a daughter who was named Mary later to be called Queen Mary I of England aka Bloody Mary. She was a Catholic.

After Queen Mary I died her half sister Elizabeth became queen and she followed the church her father started. She was Anglican.
During her reign her cousin fought for the crown. Her name was Mary Queen of Scots. She was Catholic.

 

 

British Royalty

Scotland 

Mary Queen of Scots

& her son King James

James took the Oath of Allegiance, outwardly professed Protestantism, tolerated crypto-Catholicism at court, but remained a Catholic in private.

He was the last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland.

King James' biggest claim to fame was the King James Bible.
He had a translation and compilation of approved books of the Bible commissioned

to resolve discrepancies among different translations then being used. 

 

 

The Counter-Reformation

The Counter-Reformation also called the Catholic Reformation (Latin: Reformatio Catholica) or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648). Initiated to preserve the power, influence and material wealth enjoyed by the Catholic Church and to present a theological and material challenge to Reformation, the Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort composed of five major elements:

  1. Defense of Catholic sacramental practice;

  2. Ecclesiastical or structural reconfiguration;

  3. Religious orders;

  4. Spiritual movements;

  5. Political dimensions.

Such reforms included the foundation of seminaries for the proper training of priests in the spiritual life and the theological traditions of the church, the reform of religious life by returning orders to their spiritual foundations, and new spiritual movements focusing on the devotional life and a personal relationship with Christ, including the Spanish mystics and the French school of spirituality.

It also involved political activities that included the Roman Inquisition. One primary emphasis of the Counter-Reformation was a mission to reach parts of the world that had been colonized as predominantly Catholic and also try to reconvert areas such as Sweden and England that were at one time Catholic, but had been Protestantized during the Reformation.

Various Counter-Reformation theologians focused only on defending doctrinal positions such as the sacraments and pious practices that were attacked by the Protestant reformers, up to the Second Vatican Council in 1962–1965. One of the "most dramatic moments" at that council was the intervention of Belgian Bishop Émile-Joseph De Smed when, during the debate on the nature of the church, he called for an end to the "triumphalism, clericalism, and juridicism" that had typified the church in the previous centuries.

Key events of the period include: the Council of Trent (1545–1563); the excommunication of Elizabeth I (1570) and the Battle of Lepanto (1571), both occurring during the pontificate of Pius V; the construction of the Gregorian observatory, the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, and the Jesuit China mission of Matteo Ricci under Pope Gregory XIII; the French Wars of Religion; the Long Turkish War and the execution of Giordano Bruno in 1600, under Pope Clement VIII; the birth of the Lyncean Academy of the Papal States, of which the main figure was Galileo Galilei (later put on trial); the final phases of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) during the pontificates of Urban VIII and Innocent X; and the formation of the last Holy League by Innocent XI during the Great Turkish War.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Counter-Reformation

The Counter-Reformation was all about grand and beautiful art where as the Reformation was about the purification of catholic churches.

 

 

Protestants

Iconoclasm
the rejection or destruction of religious images as heretical; the doctrine of iconoclasts.

 

 

Types of  Religions

 

 

Types of  Religions

Christianity: the monotheistic religion based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. It is the world's largest religion,

with about 2.1 billion followers worldwide. It is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ who lived in the Holy Land 2,000 years ago.

Islam: (Middle East): the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah. 

It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers. 

Hinduism: (Indian): is the world's oldest religion, according to many scholars, with roots and customs dating back more than 4,000 years.

Today, with about 900 million followers, Hinduism is the third-largest religion. Roughly 95% of the world's Hindus live in India.

Buddhism: (Indian & Asian): is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population,

known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings

attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies.

Sikhism: are known as Sikhs, which means students or disciples of the Guru. The anglicised word 'Sikhism' is derived from the Punjabi
verb Sikhi, with roots in Sikhana (to learn), and Sikhi connotes the "temporal path of learning". fifth-largest

Judaism: the monotheistic religion of the Jews based on the teachings of the Torah and Abraham. sixth-largest

Taoism: (Asian): a Chinese philosophy based on the writings of Lao-tzu ( fl. 6th century BC), advocating humility and religious piety.

seventh-largest religion

Indigenous Religions (Paganism): polytheism:  Modern pagan traditions often incorporate beliefs or practices, such as nature worship.

Native American Religion/Native American Church: are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

Traditional Native American ceremonial ways can vary widely and are based on the differing
histories and beliefs of individual tribes, clans, and bands.

Christianity and its many forms:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_religions_and_spiritual_traditions